Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians and Philippians form the third group of the Pauline Epistles and they are commonly referred to as “The Prison epistles”, In these letters for the first time, Paul wrote as a prisoner. He calls himself “The prisoner of Christ Jesus” (Eph. 3:1). All these four Epistles contain explicit references to his prison experience (Col. 4:3, 18; Philemon vs. 10, 13, 13; Eph. 3:1; 4:1; 6:20; Phil. 1:7, 13). These references show the deep mark left by the imprisonment on Paul’s heart and thinking. They also indicate that the imprisonment was of a longer duration than Paul’s previous brief detentions (II Cor. 1 1:23).

Although II Timothy was also written during Paul’s second imprisonment, it is not included under the term “prison Epistles. The indication of the severity of the Apostle’s confinement in that Epistle shows that it was imprisonment different from that, during which these Epistles were written. Except for Philemon, which is a personal note and contains no direct doctrinal teaching, these epistles are marked by their special emphasis on the person of Christ and are aptly characterized as the Christological group.



Colossal was a Phrygian city located on the upper end of the Gentile Lycus River valley, in the Eastern section of the Roman Province of Asia.

Neighbouring Cities:

Two other cities mentioned in the Epistles to the Colossians (2; 1; 4: 13, 16) were also located in the Lycus Valley; they were Laodiceans, a populous thriving centre, and Hierapolis, a famous health resort because of its hot mineral springs!


All three of these cities hail native Phrygians mostly, with some Greek and a considerable Jewish element.

. N.B: Antiochus the great (22 – I87BC) transplanted two thousand Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Babylon into the rebellious regions of Phrygian and Lydia, with promises of ‘assistance and material advantages.


Concerning the founding of the churches in the Lycus valley, nothing is directly recorded in scripture beyond what may be learnt from the Epistle to the Colossian. Paul did not personally find those churches; his knowledge of the conditions in Colossian is derived from other people (Col. 1:4, 6-7). He clearly states that the Colossians first heard the Gospel from Epaphras whom he described as “a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf (Col. 1:6 – 7).

This reading indicates that it was as Paul’s representative that Epaphras had ministered in Colossal, and this justifies Paul in claiming the Colossians were within the circle o{ his apostolic responsibility.


Principally, the membership consisted of Gentiles (Col. 1:27 2:13); however, according to the references in the Epistle, the readers were quite familiar with Jewish customs and teachings thus indicating that there were Jewish Christians as well.


1. The visit and report of Epaphras in Rome

2. The problem of the return of Onesimus to his master

Place- Rome, during Paul’s first imprisonment.

Date: A. D. 62

Bearer of the Epistle:

The bearer of the Epistle was Tychicus, a native of the province of Asia (Acts 20:4). He was accompanied by Onesimus who was being returned to his master at Colossal.


Paul wrote to strengthen and confirm the Colossian Christians in their adherence to the Gospel which they had received.

1. He expressed joy at the report of their stability and growth in the faith.

2. He assures them of his continuous prayers on their behalf.

3. He urges them to abide in the faith that they have received. (Col. 1:3-8; 2:5 – 7).

4. Paul also seeks to impress upon them that although he has never seen their faces, he is yet interested in them and the furtherance of the true Gospel among them.

5. He informs them of his deep concern for their spiritual welfare (Col. 2:1 – 5)

6. He reminds them that his personal concern for them is in keeping with the ministry given to him by the Lord for the whole church. (1:24 29).


The obvious purpose of the Epistle is to crush the heretical teaching which had threateningly emerged in Colossians. The teaching was a mixture of Jewish elements, oriental theosophy and Hellenistic Chostic Speculations’ (Gnosis – – Knowledge) (Greek). (Gnosticism – a heresy based on knowledge instead of faith).

1. This heresy pretended to be a philosophical system of truth.

2. It was but vain speculation without a foundation in truth and was empty of moral power for practical life.

3. It was ritualistic in its teachings and demands. It insisted that the Colossian Christians should observe religious days and seasons, ‘a feast day or a new moon, or a Sabbath.

4. It was ascetic:

(i) It criticized the Colossian believers about their diet, “Judge you in meat or in drink” (Col. 2:16). (ii) It drew up rigid ascetic rules; “handle not, taste, nor touch” (2:21).

(iii) It was inspired by a lack of sympathy for bodily life (2:20 23).

5. It was mystical: it encouraged Angel worship, insisted on some self-baseman and praised visions that were to be Understood only by prolonged meditation(2:18).

6. It taught that God was holy but the matter was evil and between spirit and matter was a big gap.

Paul takes the terminology of the heretics to attack their teaching. He develops, the doctrine of “cosmic Christ”. In Christ, the mediator dwells all wisdom and knowledge, in his death and Resurrection all powers of the cosmos are delegated and subjected to Him (Col. 2:3; 9, 10, 15). Any teaching that deviates from the centrality of Christ under the pretence of leading men to maturity and perfection is a perversion of the faith.


Paul uses the lather part of the epistle to instruct the Colossians in a well-balanced Christ-life through union with Christ the Head (Col. 8:5, 6. 9).

The tendency of (the Gnostic teaching was to lead its follower.- either info gross immorality or asceticism. They expose the root of the error at Colossae. Since his denunciations throughout the epistle are in the singular number, rather than in plural as in Galatians. It seems that the Colossian heresy originated from the authority of some single teacher.


The outstanding characteristic of this epistle is its Christology, its specific burden is the elaboration of the person and work of Christ as the answer to all error. The marvellous passage in (col 15 – 23) which presents Christ in his three-fold relation to God, creation and the church is the distinctive glory of this epistle among the Pauline writings; this passage presents Paul’s picture of the cosmic Christ. The Christology of the epistle is one central and unifying theme of the whole. Every part of the letter directly or indirectly contributes to this exalted theme and acknowledges Christ as “all and in all. Since apparently, the heresy at Colossae did not claim authorization from Old Testament Scripture, no reference to the Old Testament is made in the epistle.


In the Colossian Epistle, the mind of the Apostle is seen as anxious and perturbed, struggling with great spiritual difficulties of a profound and perplexing character. Fittingly, the language is lofty and the thought movement intense.

The style is shown and laboured rather than swift. There is a fondness for long compound words, many of which occur nowhere else in Paul’s writings.


In Colossians 4:16, Paul instructs the Colossians that they are to cause this epistle (Colossians) to be read in the Laodicean church and that they are also to “read the epistle from Laodicea”. The language clearly implies that it was a letter from the Apostle himself. The two letters were apparently companion letters of some kind, and Paul felt that both churches would profit by reading both letters. This directive from the Apostle may throw some light on the question of the circulation of apostolic letters from the very beginning.

KEY VERSE: Col. 2: 9, 10 and 3I

KEYWORD: The pre-eminence of Christ

THEME: The pre-eminence and sufficiency of Christ in all things.


(a) The salutation Col. (1:1 – 2).

Personal thanksgiving and prayer Col. (1:3-14). (c) DOCTRINAL: The pre-eminence of Christ Col. (1:15 23). His Divine person: (15 – 18).

(a) His relationship with the father (15a)

(b) His relationship to the creation (15b – 17).

(c) His relationship to the church (1 8).

5. HIS REDEMPTIVE WORK – (19 – 23).

(d) Ministerial: The Apostleship of Paul – (1:24 – 29).

(i) The Ministry of Paul to the whole church (1:24 – 29).

(ii) The solicitude (concern) of Paul for the Colossians – (2:1 7). (c) Polemical: The false philosophy and the true faith (2:8 – 10; 3:4).

(i) The warning against the false philosophy (2:8 – 10).

(ii) The elaboration of the sufficiency in Chris! (2:9 – 1 5).

(iii) The warnings against spiritual dangers (2:1 6 – 1 9).

(iv) The resultant exhortation – (2:20 25; 4:4).

f. Personal: The friends of Paul – (4:7 – 17)

g. Conclusion: (4:1 8).



1Thessalonians like the second Epistle to the Thessalonians was written by Paul from Corinth on his second missionary journey. This Epistle like the second to the Thessalonians puts great emphasis on the second coming of the Lord. These two epistles to the Thessalonians differ from the soteriological epistles in that they focus on the personal return of Christ the Saviour. These two epistles, however, arc regarded as Paul’s earliest extant writings.


THE HOPE IT GIVES: This letter contains one of the fullest New Testament elaborations of the church’s hope of the Redeemer’s return.


LOCATION: It was a large and prosperous seaport; in Paul’s time, it was one of the most important cities in the Roman Province of Macedonia. On the South-Western horizon is the cloudy height of the sister of Alexander the Great gods.

NAME: In about 315 BC, Cassandra, the son-in-law of Philip of Macedon enlarge the town and renamed it after his wife, the half-sister of Alexander the Great.

N.B: This name is retained today in its shortened form of Salonika.

PROMINENCE: Thessalonica was in direct constant contact with the stream of traffic between Rome and the Eastern Provinces! THE POLITICAL STATUS OF THESSALONICA: The Romans made Thessalonica the capital of the second division

of the conquered Macedonian kingdom. Later the Roman Governor.

THE INHABITANTS: The major of the Thessalonicans were Greeks but a few Romans and Orientals lived there. However, the attractive commerce at Thessalonica was responsible for the growth of a large Jewish Colony in that city.

NB: The activity and influence of the Jewish community may be seen in the large number of “Gentile-fearers” Who frequented the Jewish Synagogue, having become dissatisfied with the Pagan religion.


It was started by Paul and his helpers in the city on the second missionary journey, (see Acts 17; 1- 10). It was the second city in Macedonia to receive the Gospel from the Apostle Paul church, (Acts 16:9 – 100. “The Macedonian call” (a call for help was received by Paul while he was a Troas.

The presence of an important Synagogue drew Paul to Thessalonica where according to his custom, he began his work in the Jewish Synagogue; he showed that the historical Jesus whom he comes to proclaim, was indeed the fulfilment of the Old Testament prophecies.


The majority of the converts from the God-fearers and a good number of leading Thessalonican citizens become believers in Jesus. The reason for the large number of Gentile converts was that Paul directly preached to them after the synagogue was closed to Paul. His ministry drew the majority of the converts from heathenism to Christianity.


Paul’s; success among the gentiles caused jealousy among the unbelieving Jews who finally launched an attack on Paul’s work and drove him out of the city. (Acts 17:5-7).

In agreement with the converts, Paul and Silas left Thessalonica under cover of darkness and went to Berocca where he left Silas and Timothy and went on to Athens. Later Silas and Timothy also joined him in Athens (I Thes. 1).


Having experienced the implacable hatred of the Thessalonian Jews, Paul was rightly filled with great concern for his Thessalonian converts. Hence, he sent Timothy back to ‘Thessalonian to establish and comfort the new believers (IThess.l2).

Paul moved on to Corinth where ‘Timothy later joined him and gave him a report concerning the ‘Thessalonian converts. ‘Timothy report was the immediate occasion for the writing of I Thessalonians (3:6 – 7). Paul was unable to visit the Thessalonians in person so he -resorted to willing this epistle as a substitute for a personal visit.


The generally accepted place of writing was Corinth. DATE OF WRITING: About the middle of 5.0 AD. THE AUTHOR: Apostle Paul. KEYWORD: Holiness in Light of Christ’s Return. KEY VERSE I: Thess. 3:12, 13 & 4:16 18.



Paul wrote to express joy and appreciation that the Thessalonians has remained true to the Gospel under severe testing. This fact caused him to give thanks take courage (3:7-9). He commanded them that they had become an example to others (a) in the steadfastness of their faith (I:7) and (b) in their brotherly love.


(Establishment of truth, clearance of charges Timothy had also reported that certain slanders and insinuations against Paul were being circulated in Thessalonica to harass the Christians). So Paul found it imperative to use the first half of the epistle to defend himself against the calumniations, His enemies were declaring that he was proclaiming his new doctrine for what he could earn out of it. (While at Thessalonica, he had received love – offerings (from Philippi). Paul demonstrated that he was not prompted by a return to Thessalonica – (2:17 – 3:1).


Timothy’s report to Paul also revealed that the Thessalonians believers were not free from the (Temptation of immoral practices) (4:1 – 8). So Paul gave them some practical moral admonition and also sought to correct their lack of respect for their spiritual leaders (5:13 – 18).

The characteristics of I Thessalonians:


This is the most personal of the Epistles of Paul. It reveals:

(a) The simplicity, gentleness and affection of his personality.

(b) His tender pastoral heart, full of comfort for his young converts Col. (2:7 – 8).

(c) His desire for their sympathy and prayers Col. (5:25).

(d) His keen sensitively with regard to what people say about him Col. (2: 1-12).

(c) His longing for their spiritual progress (3: II 13).

(f) His fierce indignation against those hindering the cause of Christ, Col. (2:15- 160.

(g) His tact in dealing with his converts. He wisely precedes his blunt warnings with a recognition of the good qualities of the brethren.


The Epistle is divided into two sections – namely:

(a) Doctrinal section and (b) practical section.


As a matter of fact, the epistle reveals a rich doctrinal background.

(a) A firm faith in the Deity of Jesus Christ Col. (3:1 I).

(b) The teaching on the second coming of Our Lord Jesus Christ! Bach of the five chapters ends on the note of the Lord’s return Col. (1:10; 2:1(); 3:4:16- 17; 5:23).

(c) The Doctrine of the Rapture of the Church Col. (4:13 – I 8).

NB: This epistle does not have in it a single quotation from the Old Testament.


a. The letter proves that the teaching of Christianity originates directly back to the

divine self-revelation made in Christ Jesus.

b. It proves that the picture of Christ given in the four Gospels is genuine.

c. It bears solid witness to the truthfulness of the Gospel message.


a. Refrain from immorality (4:1 – 8).

b. Love one another-(4:9- 10).

c. Mind your affairs – (4:11-12).

d. Mutual comfort with the hope of Christ’s second coming (4:1 3 – 18).

e. Live as children of the day- (5:1 – 11).

f. Keep from evil – (5:12 15).

1. Personal relationships – (5:12- 15)

2. Fundamental attitudes – (5:16 – 22).



Remarks and Blessing – (5:23 – 28).




II Thessalonians is the second epistle – in the eschatological group of epistles. It advances the teaching of the second coming (Parousia) of our Lord Jesus Christ. Like other New Testament ‘Second Epistles. It forms a logical sequel to the first. It does not contradict but it supplements the First Epistle’s leaching on the second coming.


The immediate – occasion was Paul’s receipt of further information about the Thessalonians after they had read his first letter or Epistle. The report contained:

1. Favourable Elements:

(a) The Thessalonians had made progress in their faith and love – (1:3).

(b) They had remained firm under repealed outbreaks of persecution (1:4).

(c) Their distress about their loved ones had been relieved by the teaching of the first epistle; (They welcomed Paul’s teaching about the resurrection of the dead in Christ.


The Thessalonians were increasingly excited by the second coming. They believed “that the day of the Lord was already here. (2 Thess. 2:2) in Greek).

(a) They were looking for the immediate return of Christ (expecting a speedy second coming of Christ).

(b) Some even gave up their accustomed occupations.

(c) The leisure time caused some to become busybodies, interfering with those who wanted to work — (3:10 — 12).


DATE OF WRITING: 51 AD (a few months after the writing of I Thessalonian)

KEY VERSE: 2:2, 3 and 3:5, 6.

THEME: Understanding the Day of the Lord.


This is the shortest of Paul’s nine Epistles to churches, (only the letters to Titus and Philemon are briefer than II Thessalonians. There is a direct quotation from the Old Testament. The three chapters of this Epistle contain:

(a) Four prayers for the readers (1:11 12; 2:16 1 7); 3:5; 3:1 6).

(b) Paul’s request that the reader should pray for him (3:1)

(c) Practical Christian duties ~ (3:5 – 15).

(i) Dutifulness

(ii) Attending to one’s present responsibility.

(iii) Doing work that is available

(iv) Curiosity

NB: Honest work is one of the principles of Christian living – (2:1 – 12).


He is the final personal embodiment of the principle of lawlessness, the satan inspired manifestation – (2:9) of the personal Antichrist who will be destroyed by the personal return of Christ (2:8).


This is the Holy Spirit working through the Christian Church (2:6). He is the restraining power (2:7) on the mystery of lawlessness.



Timothy was one of Paul’s most devoted and constant companions. His name is mentioned more in his sanitations of Paul more than any other of his co-workers. Timothy’s name is connected with all four groups among the Pauline Epistles, the only companions so honoured.


Timothy, Paul’s son of the spiritual plane, was a native or at least a (resident) of Lystra (Act. 16:1 – 3). He was the son of a Greek father (Acts 16:1), apparently, dead at the time of the story in Acts, and a Jewish mother, Eunice by name (II Tim. 1:5) His name which means “honouring God” or “God is honoured”, would exemplify it in later life. From a youth up, he had received careful instruction in the Hebrew scripture from his loving” mother and Pious grandmother, Lois (II Tim. 1:5: 3:15), and he also inherited their honest faith.


Timothy was apparently one of Paul’s personal converts won while Paul was at Lystra on the First Missionary Journey (Acts 14:8 – 20).


When Paul revisited Lystra on the second Journey Timothy was already an active Christian (approved) and generally praised by the brethren in Lystra and Iconium (Acts 16:2). Paul was attracted to the young worker and decided to take him along as his assistant on his journey. Timothy and his mother agreed. In order to remove any hindrances to Timothy’s usefulness as a worker in evangelization among the Jews, Paul took him and circumcised (Him as a matter of concession to Jewish) prejudices (Acts 16:4), before beginning the new life of travelling with Paul, Timothy was ordained to the ministry by the Presbytery; Paul himself participated in it (I Tim, 4:14; II Tim. 1:6).


Timothy who was Paul’s Junior by several years became one of the most constant companions of the great Apostle. He was with Paul at Troas when (the Macedonian call was received and was (in the group which) began work Philippi (17:14; I Thes. 3:1 – 2; Acts 18:5, IThes. 1:1; II Thess. 1:1; Acts 19:7-2; Acts 20:3 4; and I Tim. 1:3).


Timothy had an attractive character, with a lender and affection ale disposition, faithful and loyal to Paul.


Upon his release from his first imprisonment, Paul had found that Ephesus was the storm centre of false teaching. He dealt with the leaders of the trouble (1:19-20) but (anticipating further trouble (6:3 – 5) he left Timothy in charge of the situation while he went to Macedonia (1:3). Peeling that Timothy would need encouragement and authorization to proceed with the difficult task entrusted to him. Paul wrote him this letter (N: B) Timothy was not the pastor because the church was under the leadership of its own elders. PLACE: It was written in Macedonia.


Written in AD. 63.


3:15, 16 and 6:11, 12.


Leadership manual for church organization.

THEME: Timothy’s organization and oversight of Asian Church, a faithful minister of Cod.


(a) To make Timothy an able leader, an effective assistant in his absence.

(b) To make him be able to deal with matters; involving leadership organization, errors, various groups, false teaching, wealth and poverty.

(c) To encourage the young minister to fight a good fight the good fight of faith and to make use of spiritual gifts.

(d) To make judicious use of his youth so that it is not decided by reason of wrong use.

(c) To give Timothy instructions on how to deal with false teaching (Gnostic Judaists)(l:7- 11).


This epistle is more than a personal letter like Philemon’s. It is (the most pastoral of the three epistles in the group (leadership manual).


1. Paul’s Charge Concerning Doctrine: After his normal greeting (1:1, 2) Paul warns Timothy about the activities of false teachers as it is threatening the church. The apostle of this false teaching- Gnostic judaisers arc out to destroy Paul’s work (1:3 – 11). The Old Apostle recalls his conversion and urges Timothy to fulfil his ministry without wavering (1:12 – 17; I Tim. I: 18 – 20).

2. Charge Concerning Public Worship (2 and 3): Paul emphasizes sound leadership and worship. He also speaks of the role of men and that of women especially in demonstrating inner Christian qualities. Finally, the great Apostle lists out the qualification of a bishop or an overseer.

3. Charge Concerning False Teachers (4): Paul had difficulties with some of the older men who had backslidden, who also used to foment problems with wrong teachings. Paul also advises on the issues of marriage; food and physical exercise. Finally, he reminds Timothy of his spiritual gifts which must be employed constantly.

4. Charge Concerning Church Discipline Chapt. 5.

i. Paul urges Timothy to lead in church disciple an example of what he teaches.

ii. Paul asks Timothy to withdraw from such things that do not agree with pastoral duties and adds that the rich in this world should use their riches wisely. (6:17- 19).



In II Timothy, we have Paul’s final moving words as he faces death unafraid. It is the dying appeal of the Apostle to his young associate, exhorting him to be steadfast in the ministry in the face of appealing difficulties. He is the most personal of the pastoral Epistles.


When second Timothy was written, Paul again was a prisoner. The reference to his circumstances in the epistle makes it evident that it cannot belong to the imprisonment mentioned in Acts 28. The circumstances of this imprisonment arc quite different from conditions during the Acts imprisonment. At that time, he was treated with considerable leniency by the Roman Government being permitted to live “in his own hired dwelling” (Acts 28:30); now he is kept in enclosed confinement and regarded as a malefactor (II Tim. 1:16, 2:9). It was a sort of house arrest.

Then he was accessible to all who wished to sec him (Acts 28:30; 20:30). Now, even one Onesiphorus could find him only after a diligent search at personal risk (II Timothy 1:16- 17).


Nero propagated the calumny that the Christians were criminals and issued an edict that they should be arrested and punished. Many Christians perished in the savage persecution that followed. Because it had become a dangerous thing openly to profess Christianity or to befriend its outstanding leaders, many of evident in Paul’s statement that “all that arc in Asia turned away from me” II Tim. 1:15. Having no one to plead his cause, Paul took up his own defence very successfully; he was remanded to prison and the case adjourned for further study by the court (II Tim. 4:17). Under these conditions, he wrote the second Timothy.


(i) Timothy’s Need

The Epistle was largely prompted by the Apostle’s fatherly concern for young Timothy to encourage him and keep him steadfast in that dark hour of Paul’s impending death.

(ii) Paul’s Yearning:

From Paul’s own standpoint, the letter was prompted by his deep sense of loneliness. His heart craved human sympathy and understanding love as he anticipated his hour of martyrdom.

PLACE: It was written in Rome during Paul’s second imprisonment.

DATE: The Epistle was authored in A. D. 66.

THE BEARER OF II TIMOTHY: Most probably Tychicus.


I) Encouragement:

Paul wrote to encourage, instruct and strengthen Timothy in his Ministry. He urges him to suffer hardship “as a good soldier of Christ Jesus (2:3).

(ii) Summons:

He also wanted to summon Timothy to Rome as soon as possible (4:9, 2 1 a).

(iii) Testimony:

The Epistle gave Paul an opportunity to record his own testimony.


(i) Last Words:

II Timothy comprises the lost words of a great man of God, Paul. It records his dying testimony and advice.

.(ii) General Contents:

II Timothy is definitely a personal appeal to Timothy himself in view of the appealing conditions confronting him.

(iii) Prophecies:

The Epistle contains two definite prophetic utterances concerning the coming apostasy (3:1 – 6, 4:3 – 4).

(iv) Important Passages:

(a) Inspiration and function of scripture (3:16 17).

(b) Admonition to study (2:15).

(c) The firm foundation of God with its seal (2:19).

(d) Reference to difference lovers (3:2 – 4).

KEY VERSES: (II Tim. 2:3, 4 and 3:14 – 17)

KEYWORD: Endurance in the Pastoral Ministry THE DIVISIONS OF THE EPISTLE: They arc two

(i) Perseverance in present Testing: Chap, (,!’ – 2)

(ii) Endurance in Future Testing: Chap. (3 4).



It is a testimony to Paul’s practical wisdom and foresight that he drew into association with himself such a young man as Titus and Timothy in the work of the Gospel.


Background Titus was a Greek by nationality (Gal., 2:3). His home was in Syrian Antioch and he accompanied Paul to the Jerusalem conference.


It is at Ephesus we first hear of Titus as one of Paul’s assistants. He comes into the picture through his work in Corinth where he was sent by Paul on three different occasions (II Cor. 8:6, 10, 16 – 24).


Prom the difficulty of the tasks which Paul assigned to Titus, 4 It is evident that Titus was a most capable man, tactful, resourceful and skilful in the handling of man. He was a man of strong affection, and devout enthusiasm.


When Paul wrote him, Titus was working with the churches on Crete, an important island in the Mediterranean sea. The Inhabitants of Crete has an evil reputation (Titus 1:12 ~ 13). Their household was proverbial. The expression, “to Crete’ was synonymous with “to lie” and “to play the Cretan with a Cretan meant “to out trick a tricker”. Their morale was low.


There is no available record of how Christianity first came to Crete. It is possible that some of the Cretans who were present in Jerusalem on Pentecost and were converted (Acts 2:11) brought the Gospel back to Crete, but there is no record of


The emphasis on worthy Christian conduct in the epistle implies that moral conditions in the churches were not expected by the founder of the churches. The moral laxity in the land coupled with their mind of deception doubtlessly had an adverse effect on the lives of the believers. Standards of morality consistent with the Christian faith needed to be stressed. In the inadequately organized condition the

Cretan churches were plagued with the presence of false teachers (1:10, 14, 1 6).


The occasion for the writing of Titus seems to have been the forthcoming visit of Apollos and Zenas to Crete (3:13). Paul took the opportunity thus accord him to write to Titus. Because of the difficult conditions in Crete, Titus would heed the encouragement and authorization would give to him.

DATE: In about 63 AD

PLACE: Possibly Corinthian, but there is nothing in the epistle to prove where Paul was when writing the letter.

BEARERS: Zenas and Apollos.

THE PURPOSE OF TITUS: Authorization:

(a) For Titus’ work on Crete (2:55).

(b) Instruction: To Titus concerning his work in the church (1:6; 10- 16; 2:1 -2:11 – 14; 3:8).

(c) Information: To Titus concerning Zenas the Aoikkis (3:1 3).


a. The celebration of the grace of God (2:1 I 14).

b. In the past, present and the future.

c. The positive and the negative view of the Christian life (2:1 2).

d. Con-entered summary of Pauline doctrine.


  1. i. Salutation (1:1 – 14).

ii. Concerning elders and errors in Crete (1:5 16).

iii. On nature groups to the congregations (2:1 ~ 14).

iv. Unbelievers among men generally (2:1 – 14).

v. Conclusion (3:12- 1 5).


While this epistle is not a strictly private letter, it is concerned with a personal problem and gives us a glimpse of the Apostle’s ability to deal with such personal affairs as they touched the lives of his converts.


The epistle to Philemon is the only New Testament Book giving us a look r. Christian household of the time. Apparently, Philemon was a well-to-do householder. His house was special enough to serve as an assembly place for believers in Colecsal and he was in a position to show his benevolence to an extended circle of fellow Christian (vs. 2, 7). Aphia was his wife and Archippus was his son. To this household, Onesimus belonged as a slave.

Slavery was a commonly accepted feature of that day. Because of this situation. Paul included instructions for Christian slaves as well as matters in writing to the Colossians and the Ephesians. (Col. 3:22; 4:1; Eph. 6:5 – 9).


Onesimus, a slave to Philemon had wronged possibly robbed his master of some money and had fled away. To invade the slave had found his way into populous Rome where he came into conduct with Paul who consistently led him to Christ (vs. 10). As a new believer in Christ, Onesimus, whose name meant “profitable” (vs. 1 I), I rendered highly appreciated service to Paul in his imprisonment (vs. 13) Onesimus had repented but had to make restitution. Paul felt that Onesimus must return to his master in accordance with the demands of the law. Soon circumstances demanded that Tychicus be dispatched to Celossac with the epistle to that church; Paul used the opportunity to return Onesimus to his master with a letter of explanation incorporating a plea for Onesimus.

PLACE: A Rome in prison (Vs. 9:13).

DATE: AD 62. Bear Tychicus.


Let’s stop here, for now, till next week, yet on the same topic. thanks and gods grace to make heaven.

From this part of the world, It is all thanks and be rupturable, from pastor Godstrong.



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  1. Thank you for an insight into the background of Paul’s most instructive books to gentiles. The books of colossians, philimon, ephesians and philippians are unlike and very much unlike other books, here Pauls attention is concentrated on the life and authority of the believer and it helps us take our rightful place in our world 

  2. Indeed, the Colossians represented a body of believers from three distinct groups; native Phrygians mostly, with some Greek and a considerable Jewish element.


    1) Are these groups identified as Colossians in today’s culture?

    2) Does the ancient city of Phrygia in Asia Minor still exist?

    3)Who are Epaphras? And what is his connection to Paul?

    This article is an excellent bio on Pauls’s letter to the Colossians.  It provides an in-depth look at who the Colossians were as believers and their belief in the creator of the universe, the dirty, the one and only true God. Finally, I hope to get feedback on the questions listed above.

    • Thank you Sharon for stopping by. Now to your questions 1 and 2, the answers are ‘no’ because today’s culture consumed theirs and modernity seems to have rewritten many ancient names. But for Epaphras,(Greek: Ἐπαφράς) he was an observer of the Apostle Paul mentioned twice in the New Testament epistle of Colossians and once in the New Testament letter to Philemon. thanks so much and remain in Lord Sharon.

  3. You are right Parameter. Apostle Paul is a mirror and a case study for anyone that is called of God. Apostle Paul being an apostle to the gentile was good evidence that God has us in His plan. Thanks and God bless.


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