A Canadian scholar was quoted as saying that sermons today are spiritless, irrelevant, dull, and is badly delivered.
Homiletics is a subject, that is as old as Christianity. Christ and His disciples quoted other scriptures that used illustrations, parables to communicate the divine truth to people.
Paul and church fathers cited the Scriptures in their messages, this continued till the domination of the Roman Catholic Church. But Homiletics resurfaced again at the time of Martin Luther.
There’s nothing one can do to be a good preacher other than to study homiletics and its basic principles. We know that the subject of preaching is a divine truth, which is the Bible, revealed and offered in Jesus Christ Our Lord. Its objective is eternal life in 10:10. The preacher is the agent of this high function (The work of the Ministry is a golden profession) you must not fail to describe your heart (mind and conduct).
The materials in this volume have been carefully selected and put together for the proper treatment of this course. This course will entail a good and well-balanced knowledge of the principles of preparation and delivery of a sermon(s) conduct, voice, and other things that are associated with preaching as homiletics.
“Let the prophet who has a dream tell his dream, but let the one who has my word speak it faithfully. For what has straw to do with grain? Declares the Lord. “Is not my word like fire,” declares the Lord, “and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces”?
DEFINITIONS of Homiletics?
The word “homiletics” is derived from the Greek word homilia and signifies either a mutual talk, conversation, or a set discourse.
From the word homilia has come the English word homiletics – which has a reference to that science or art or indeed both – which deals with the structure of Christian discourse, embracing all that pertains to the preparation and delivery of sermons and Bible addresses. It shows us how to prepare a sermon or Gospel address and how to deliver it effectively.
a. Homiletics, then, is the art and science of the preparation and delivery of a sermon. (Preaching) or public address The art governing it.
By Science is meant – classified knowledge.
By art is meant – the application and use of knowledge.
b. Sermon: is the proclamation or declaration or heralding of the living word through the spoken word using the written word in the power of the Holy Spirit.
The living is Christ – Acts 8:5. 1 Cor. 1:23.
c. Preaching: Is the proclamation of the Good news of salvation through man to men. It is an art of moving men from lower to a higher life, it is an art of inspiring them toward nobler manhood.
Bernard Manning defined preaching as a manifestation of the incarnate word from the written word, by the spoken word, It is God communicating himself to man through human agencies in the power of His spirit. Preaching is eloquence.
David Watson in his book – 7 believe in the church‘ quoted Luke as using no less than thirteen different Greek words to describe the variety and richness of their verbal proclamation. They preached, heralded, testified, proclaimed, taught, exhorted, argued, disputed, confounded, proved, reasoned, persuaded, and pleaded and el were in the N.T. the apostles announced, explained, confessed, charged, admonished, rebuked. The Greek calls it Keryrnaef (public proclamation).
d. Preacher – Alfred P. Gibbs in his book – ‘Preach the Word’ believes that the preacher is sent forth by God and the sinner is brought to God. The preacher is separated by God for the specific work of preaching the gospel and is a man who from one side of his nature takes in the truth from God and from the other side gives out that truth to men.
e. Word: Words are used in preaching. Words are the most powerful tools at man’s disposal. He uses them to bring blessings or curses. Words are universal and the most powerful means of communication. Therefore the preacher must speak very clearly to be understood. God used words to create the whole world. Through preaching, we can also use words to recreate men or reconcile man back to God. As a preacher, you can turn people around if you make good use of your words.
f. Gospel; (See. 1 Cor 15:1-8) Preach only the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The gospel is the good news of God’s remedy for man. Preaching persuades men. Preach both good news and warning about impending doom of sinners – Jer. 614, 23:16-17. Do not say peace, peace when there is no peace nor speak a vision of your own heart. Don’t be a pet preacher, don’t give false comfort.
THE PURPOSE OF PREACHING THE SERMON
1. To make people God-conscious
2. To translate the gospel into modern thought terms, means bringing the gospel into a simple form.
3. To show the relevance of the gospel to human situations.
4. Persuade men and women to believe the gospel and live by it.
5. To offer hope to sinful men and women of a lost world, then present Jesus Christ the Savior.
How much more important it is, then for you to be a craftsman, well informed about and skilled in the work of preaching – “a workman who won’t be ashamed!” 11 Tim. 2:15
Preaching Necessarily Involves:
(1) Content, in the form of a biblical message A preacher
An occasion (in which I include time and place) Listeners The Holy Spirit
The Purpose of Preaching from a Scriptural Portion
(1) To obey God and follow the examples of Jesus
(2) To preach with authority
(3) To preach with power
(4) To preach effectively
(5) To preach at all
(A) QUALIFICATIONS OF A PREACHER
1 He must be born again: in 3:3 Vs 7. Jn. 1:12 – 13, Rom. 10:9 – 10.
It is, therefore, imperative that each person who seeks to present the word of God to others should be certain he has experienced, a new birth for himself, and can truthfully testify “Behold God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid for the Lord Jehovah is my strength and my song, he also is become my salvation – Isa 12:2.
2 He must love the Lord Jesus
The preacher should only be motivated by the sense of duty and obligation, which the new birth, be moved by the constraining love of Christ I Cor. 9:16-22, 2 Cor. 5:14,15,
3 He must be a student of the Bible: ( A man/woman of the book)
Since the Bible is the preacher’s supreme authority and the subject of all his preaching, it is imperative that he be well acquainted with its contents as a whole. Preaching is hard work that demand, search, investigation, reading, etc. to be the best at all times 2 Sam 24:24, Mat. 13: 52.
4 He must be a man of prayer:
He who would speak much to man for God must speak much to God for man. A prayer-less ministry or minister is both powerless and profitless. Theology must be accompanied by kinesiology.
Jesus example: – Lk 3:21, 5:16, 6:12, 9:18, 9:29, 11:1, 22:32, 22:42, 23:34, 23:46.
5 He must be clean in his life In the Christian Ministry “Cleanliness is godliness”
A preacher of all people should be above reproach in his life. He should have a good report of them that the without i.e. the world, 1Tim:3:6-7. Inconsistency of life on the part of the preacher causes blasphemy of both God’s doctrine and his Word – Rom. 2:21-24. 1Tim. 6:1, Tit. 2:5, 2 Sam. 12:14.
6 He must be called by God: Rom10:14-15, 1Cor. 12:4-5.
It is wrong to go into full-time preaching by people’s suggestions.
7 The preacher must be able for the work
a. He should be filled with the Spirit.
(cf Acts 6:3) not a recent convert – 1Tim. 3:6.
b. He should be able to teach
A person who cannot talk properly px clearly for people to understand, cannot preach to a gathering1 of people. He should be able to express his thoughts clearly.
c. He should be capable of dealing with difficulties
To be able to counsel others, he should not be one who is always struggling with problems in his own “the blind cannot lead a blind”,
8) The preacher must have concern for others
A preacher must have compassion for the lost – Jn. 4:32-38.
9) He must be fit for the work
We shall think of this fitness in a fourfold way:
a. Spiritually – We need spiritual unction to function. 2Tim 1:6, Lev.10:7-11.
b. Physically –
c. Mentally –
d. Educationally –
10) He must be filled with the New or Fresh Anointing
Since the demand is so great, – and cannot be accomplished without fresh endowment of power as the sole credential of fulfilment. Acts. 1:8, 2:1, 6:3.
THE DEFINITION OF SERMON:
It has its origin in a Latin Word meaning “a stab” or Thrust”. This indicates its purpose: to pierce the hearer with the sword of the spirit which is the Word of God – Eph. 6:17. Dr Phelps defined a sermon as an oral address to the popular mind, on scriptural truth contained in the Bible, elaborately treated, and with the view to persuasion.
1. It is an oral or spoken / address Thus it is to be heard by an audience.
2. It is to be the popular mind.
Therefore it should be couched in words easy to be understood.
3. It is on Scriptural truth.
This eliminates all political speeches, Scientific disquisitions, and discussions of the latest novel.
4. It is elaborately treated.
This means that the test is closely examined in relation to its context. The passage of the Bible will be carefully analyzed, its meaning .explained, its truth illustrated, and the lesson applied in a logical, intelligent and edifying manner.
5. It is with a view to persuasion.
The supreme goal of a preacher should not only be to gain the attention
of the hearer to the Word of God, but to win him to an acceptance of and
obedience to the truth presented.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE SERMON
A sermon can be likened to a bridge, which spans the gulf between ignorance and knowledge, indifference and interest, unbelief and faith, inaction and decision. The preacher’s aim should be to conduct his hearers across this bridge.
The approach to the bridge on the far side is called the introduction. The main structure of the bridge is a discussion, with each division of the sermon forming a supporting column. The near side is the conclusion.
Properly speaking, there are five parts to a sermon. The text, the theme, the introduction, the discussion, and the conclusion.
THE INITIAL STEPS
Some outward sources of ideas.
1. Through reading-both sacred and secular books and magazines, but not phonography and literature that are satanic in origin.
2. While travelling by road, train or rail, place, sea or even by foot, while you watch nature.
3. As you mingle with other people, talkless, listen attentively, ask meaningful and purposeful questions. Learn new words and the latest events.
4. Word study – (etymology). This is not limited to words in the English language and your mother tongue
5. Make good use of Bible commentaries e.g. “Matthew Henry” and “Pulpit
6. Much prayers and even fasting.
– Keep a notebook handy wherever you go you sleep) with a good pen to put down any idea that comes into your mind lest you forget them.
– Do your best to avoid dangerous ideas. Decide your goal for preaching from such ideas. *Don’t preach aimlessly and endlessly.
THE FUNCTIONALITY OF SERMONS
There are different purposes in preaching; Doctrinal teaching. Evangelistic i.e. salvation of souls, healing and deliverance, devotional, etc. These are sometimes referred to as the functions of preaching. These functions are met depending on what can be called “The functional elements” of a sermon; Explanation, Argument, illustration, Application.
(1) EXPLANATION: i.e. telling the people what your proposition is all about. All sermons whether topical, textual, or expository should allow some explanation. Some sermons require more explanation than others. Note that teaching is not possible without explanation and the principal source of explanation is the Bible itself.
(2) ARGUMENT: is a process by which a proposition is proved, it also demonstrated or inferred to be true or false.
(3) ILLUSTRATION: Many authorities in homiletics agree that illustrations are the windows of a sermon. This means that illustration makes it possible for hidden or abstract truth to be vivid or clear. E.g. the Christian is the salt, Gospel is light. Etc. The illustration can do the following:
a. Make the message clear
b. Ease the congregation
c. Makes the truth impressive
d. Makes the preaching more interesting
e. Makes your sermon
f. Help persuade people
g. Makes repetition possible without saying it the same way.
(4) APPLICATION; OR PERSUASION: This is a material, which distinguishes a sermon from a talk or a lecture. Theresa sermon should
instruct and inspire, but whatever else it does, it should also persuade.
In conclusion, if a sermon has these functional elements and materials it will instruct the mind, impress the will hold the attention, stir the emotions and finally persuade .more people into decisions and actions.
Definition: The theme is that part of the sermon which defines the main truth which is to be expounded from the text. The theme is the sermon condensed, and the sermon is the Theme expanded.
The wise choice and proper wording of the theme of a sermon are matters of no small importance. Yet it must be admitted that a wisely chosen theme has much to do with the sermons, interest to its hearers. The theme can be summarized to be the summary of the message in one sentence.
- Ø The preacher should know his theme well.
- Ø He must make sure that his theme is one his audience can readily understand.
- Ø He must not make his theme be of little or no important one.
- Ø He should have a definite aim or purpose in the treatment of his theme.
- Ø He must not choose a theme he does not like or has experienced.
- Ø He should let his theme be suitable to time, place, and occasion.
There are five major parts to a sermon
(1) Theme / Topic – the theme is the head
(2) Text – the text is the heart
(3) The Introduction – the introduction or definition is the colour of the message
(4) The body or discussion – the body is the parts
(5) The Conclusion ~ the conclusion is the summary and end of the message.
But the three main divisions of a sermon are an introduction, body, and
Have an Outline
The preacher gathers together all his thoughts as a builder gathers his materials before building a house. Write down the thoughts – the thoughts we mean about the context, background, circumstances in which the text was written, the proper meaning of the words used, and the general teaching of the Bible concerning the text in question and put them down on paper. The outline is to a preacher what a building plan is to a builder. To make an outline, the preacher will begin to put his materials and thoughts under different headings. An outline is a guide to the preaching of the word and helps the preacher develop his thoughts and ideas,
(a) NECESSITY OF OUTLINE IN A SERMON
It guides the preacher from deviating and makes him focus on his ideas and thoughts in the direction he wants them to go.
ADVANTAGES OF AN OUTLINE
An outline is desirable both to the preachers and his listeners.
TO THE PREACHER
(a) It aids the preacher in developing his thoughts
(b) It keeps him on the track
(c) It enables the preacher to keep the paths of the sermon in the right proportion or in timing.
TO THE HEARER
(a) It enables the hearers to understand what the preacher is saying or heading to.
(b) It prevents the hearers not to misunderstanding what is being said.
(c) It provides the hearers with the needed emotional rhythm, or (feeling, to pull to Jesus before you).
(d) It helps the hearers in remembering what has been said,
RULES FOR AN OUTLINE
An outline should have unity – a simple procedure
An outline should have an order – co-ordinate or equal in rank. An outline should have proportion – evenly distributed.
1. Definition: The word text comes from the Latin word “textus” which means something woven “as texture”) It thus refers to that portion of scripture that has been chosen for exposition, and around which the sermon is woven. This text may consist of the whole paragraph- of Scripture or a single verse or even part of a verse.’ The text is always a biblical passage on which the sermon is based.
2. ADVANTAGES OF HAVING A TEXT IN A SERMON
The necessity for the text.
a. It confines or should confine the speaker to his theme or keep the preacher’s mind from wandering.
b. It gives authority and boldness to the message.
c. It gives unity to the Sermon.
d. It prepares the audience for the discussion or gains the confidence of the audience.
e. It will keep the preacher Biblical and promote variety in preaching.
THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES WHICH GOVERN THE SELECTION OF A TEXT:
Phillips Brooks well said, “The ease and facility with which a text is chosen depends upon two things:
- 1. The preacher’s own mind, (2) The idea of a sermon:
A strong sermon is that sermon that accomplishes the desired results; which ought to be messages straight from the heart of the preacher to the Soul of the hearer.
- Ø One must carefully consider the spiritual needs of the people to whom one is ministering.
- Ø There should be a careful consideration of the cycle truth preached.
- Ø There should be a careful consideration of one’s ability to Deal with the text and the subject Derived from it – i.e. a preacher must not choose subjects that are above and beyond his ability to handle.
CERTAIN PRECAUTIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR THE CHOICE OF TEXTS.
(A) Let the preacher be warned against choosing or adding texts.
(B) He must not choose a ridiculous next.
(C) He must not choose texts that create expectations that neither the sermon nor the preacher can fulfil.
(D) He must not choose questionable texts.
(E) He must not use mutilated texts e.g.
“All men are liars”; “There’s no God” etc.
(a) The preacher must find out whether the language of the text is literal or figurative.
(b) He must find out the meaning of words as used by each writer of the Scriptures e.g.
All the writers do not give the same word exactly the same meaning. The usage of the writer and the connection in which it is used must determine the meaning of the particular word.
• Sometimes the sense in which the word is used is made known or defined by the writer himself.
• Sometimes words are used to be understood, according to the context, to mean the very opposition heir usual sense.
(c) He must consider the circumstances surrounding the writer at that time and to those written to
(d) He must compare scripture with scripture: – (Rom 12:6.)
(e) He must seek to know and understand the manners and customs of the people to whom the Bible was originally written.
The introduction is the portion of the message, which leads to the body. It has many important functions to a sermon. For example, no one starts to talk to a stranger without a few words of greeting and introduction. In the same way, no preacher can enter into the discussion or body of his sermon without an introduction.
Definition: The introduction is that part of the sermon, which prepares the audience for the discussion of the text.
The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the hearts of the audience to listen and understand the discussion. To awaken their interest. With an Introduction, the audience is prepared for an understanding of the theme under consideration.
(a) Introduction should be interesting
(b) Prepare the introduction last.
(a) It will make for the oneness of the text, theme, and body.
(b) An introduction prepared first may be too long – it is only after the sermon has been prepared, that we can prepare a short, clear, and relevant introduction to it.
[c) When starting to prepare a sermon, our minds are full of many things we want to say about the text, if we start with our introduction, many of these thoughts will infiltrate into it, which ought to be at various places throughout the sermon.
QUALITIES OF GOOD INTRODUCTION;
THE SOURCES OF AN INTRODUCTION
(1) TEXT = (because everything you will say will reflect your text).
(a) Its construction (your words must be built properly like blocks in a building-arrange your grammar well.)
(b) General familiarity – know your text very well,
(c) Text generally misunderstood – (avoid having the text misunderstood)
(2) CONTEXT – is a word or phrase or statement that comes before or after the text, this helps you build your introduction i.e. upper or lower verses of the chapter of your text.
(3) HISTORICAL SETTING – making it interesting by historical facts, information on political, moral conditions of the things you want to speak on.
(4) GEOGRAPHY OF THE BIBLE LAND – take time to find, investigate the geographical location of Palestine and other Arabic nations -know them enough before you speak.
(6) THE CUSTOMS & ANTIQUITIES OF THE BIBLE – Do proper research on Bible life and manners, ancient discoveries, and modern names of cities called mountains and valleys.
(7) THE CIRCUMSTANCES PECULIAR TO THE WRITER AND THOSE ADDRESSED. E.g. the story of Onesimus and Philemon, in Phil Vs. 10-11
(8) THE OCCASION – Special Day, like Easter Sunday, Feasts, etc tell them the story of the proper occasion you are celebrating that day.
(9) THE SUBJECT – your little or topic reflecting the current happening in the society -with panics, such as the instability of Earthly things” etc.
(10) POETS – an apt quotation from the poets and composers.
The Greek orators expressed their conception of the importance of the conclusion of an address or oration by calling it “the final struggle which decides the conflict. With this one can easily say that the last five minutes of a sermon is the most important part of it.
Every sermon should have a purpose and destination and when that place is reached, the preacher should stop, many good sermons have been- ruined” by bad conclusions Preachers carefully prepare the introduction body Of their message but leave the conclusion unfinished believing that when the time comes, as they are preaching the Sermon, they will know how to conclude
WHAT FORM SHALL THE CONCLUSION TAKE?
Cicero – A Roman scholar defines “recapitulation” as “recollection
revived, not speech repeated”.
(b) POEM OR ILLUSTRATION
Sometimes the conclusion of the Sermon takes the form of a poem or the verse of some well-known hymn.
What should be the length of the Conclusion?
It should not be any longer than the introduction. From three to five minutes is long enough. The preacher should conclude when he is through. If he says,
and now indeed it may not be wise to let it be known that he is bringing his sermon to a close It is better to close before his people about it. It is better to leave a congregation longing than loathing. In summary, what are the qualities of a good conclusion?
(5) Market by the intensity
TYPES OF SERMONS
There are basically three kinds of sermons agreed among authorities on homiletics.
(3) Topical sermons.
Every sermon type must have three main divisions – Introduction, discussion, and conclusion. Jin textual sermons, a well-balanced text is chosen. The main theme of the text is determined which may serve as the main topic with careful interpretation, illustration, and application. In textual sermons, you expose a single text.
In Expository sermons, the exposition of the entire scripture is done. Expository preaching is very important. It brings certain truths out of scriptural passages due to many studies and divine illumination. Certain characters in the Bible are good materials for this kind of preaching.
In Topical sermons, you choose a certain subject or topic, or theme and then search through all the scriptures to discover what light can be thrown on it. Note that not all authorities in Homiletics classify sermons the same way.
EXAMPLES OF SERMONS
Topical Sermon begins with a theme, while textual sermon begins with a text.
(1) TEXTUAL – A textual sermon is one of which the main divisions are derived from a text consisting of a brief portion of scripture. Each of these divisions is then used as a line of suggestion, and the text provides the theme of the sermon.
This type of sermon consists of selecting verses or a verse or even part of a verse as a text. After the theme has been discovered and started in one own word, the text is then analyzed textual sermons usually in the exposition of a single text. Textual sermons are usually in the exposition of a single text. As the name implies, this type consists of selecting verses or verses or even part of a verse as your text.
Theme; The resurrection of Jesus Christ Text, And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures I Cor 15:3.
To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs being seen of them forty days and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.
The important place of the doctrine in the Christian system. The body; or Discussion; OUTLINE;
(1) The nature of the resurrection of Jesus Christ
. 2. The proof of the resurrection of Jesus Christ
3. The necessity for the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
4. The results of Jesus Christ’s resurrection Conclusion
(2) EXPOSITORY SERMONS
“This type of sermon, though perhaps the most difficult to prepare and present is the very best” according to Alfred P. Gibbs. And every student is urged to study and practice this method.
The word comes from two Latin words; “ex,” meaning out, and “Pono”, to place meaning “to place out, display or exhibit. The text of an expository sermon is always longer than the text of textual or topical sermons, it can be a paragraph or a chapter or even a whole book of the Bible.
(1) It puts the supreme emphasis on the word of God. – It demands direct contact with the Scripture.
(2) It provides an opportunity for speaking on certain subjects which would otherwise be neglected. (2) It will furnish the preacher with enough materials for a lifetime of preaching.
Theme: A fourfold attitude toward sin.
Text: I jn 1: 7 – 2; 2.
Discussion or outline:
1. Denying it (1; 8- 10)
(A) Nature of the denial;
1. As to the possession of a sinful nature (Vs 8).
2. As to the committal of sinful acts (Vs 10)
(B) What is involved in such a denial?
(1) Self – deception Vs 8
(2) Challenging Gods statement Vs 7,
(3) Making God a liar Vs 10,
(3) The word of God as a norm, having nodding place in
the heart Vs 10.
II Confessing it (I; 9)
(A) The nature of confession
(I) Confess – takes sides with God against it admit it.
2) Renounce – forsake what you would have God remit.
3) Believe in the efficacy of the Blood of Jesus Christ w7 – 9
4) Accept God’s declaration of forgiveness, based on His righteousness and justice (v.9)
B) The result of confession
(1) We are forgiven Vs 9,
(3) We are cleansed from sins guilt Vs 7 and sins power Vs 9
III Victory over it 2; I
(A) Victory possible 2; I
(B) Its method
(1) Word of. God-2; 14
(2) Divine nature 3; 9
(3) Indwelling Holy Spirit 4; 4
(IV) Repeating it or falling into it (I: 7 – 2; 2)
(A) Admit that we do sin 2; I
(B) What to do when we sin
(I) Recognize provision made for it 1:7-9, 2,2.
(4) Confess it, 1:9
A topical sermon is one in which the main divisions are derived from the topic independently of a text. The topic sermon does not require a text as the basis of its message. It means that the text of the scripture is not the source of the topical sermon.
This type of sermon consists of choosing a certain subject or topic and then searching through all scriptures to discover what light can be thrown on it. A topical sermon properly prepared and delivered, should possess three qualities unity, coherence, and emphasis. It takes from the text-only a topic or subject or theme of the message and can go round the whole Bible to make up the outline.
(1) It enables both speaker and hearer to grasp a topic of the Bible as a whole.
(2) It affords an ample opportunity for a thorough discussion of the subject.
(3) It impresses the audience with the unity of scripture The great doctrines of the Bible can best be studied and expounded by this method.
Theme; Forgiveness Introduction;
1. The author of forgiveness
a. Jesus forgives sins – Lk 7; 4-8 – 50
b. God forgives – Mk 2; 7
2. The means of forgiveness
a. On the grounds of compassion – Ps 78;39
b. On the grounds of divine justice – Un 1:9
c. On the Blood of Jesus – Eph 1:7
3. The conditions of forgiveness
a. Repentance – Acts 5: 31
b. Faith-LK 7: 50
c. Confession – I Jn l;9
d. Forgiving others – Mt 6; 15
3. The completeness of forgiveness
a. All sins are forgiving – LK 7:47
b. All trespasses are forgiven – Col. 2; 13
VOICE IN HOMILETICS
VOICE DURING DELIVERY
The human voice is the God-given instrument by which the is conveyed through a God-given messenger to accomplish given message a God-given result.
Your voice is the greatest instrument you have and the voice is man’s institution or complete According to “Cicero” a Roman scholar” one of the best preachers and orator says that for effective and admirable delivery of speech the voice is holding the highest place. One’s voice may not be good so to say, but through constant training and practice, it can improve – e.g., the musicians, orators, etc. The human voice has four powers
(3) Melody or PENETRATION (ING)
(1) . COMPASS
This is the range of pitch of which the voice extends.
Volume is simply the quantity of tone or amount of sound produced. It is totally different from the pitch.
This comes at once not gradually, and we see volume in these areas as loud – or be louder and strong.
A sufficient volume that is properly regulated will render the voice audible to a greater distance. This will make it more commanding that is powerful and impressive.
This is what describes the distance your voice can be heard – It is a powerful voice that does not depend on the volume or pitch.
This is the sweetness of tone. Melody also depends on two things (a)
Sweetness (b) flexibility.
The voice also has three registers or pitches
(1)Low (2) High (3) Middle.
MANAGEMENT OF VOICES
(1) Don’t begin your message or speech with a high tone or a high key.
(2)Don’t allow your voice to drop in the last statement or during conclusions.
(3) Never fail to take a breath before the lungs are entirely exhausted. Always allow your lungs to be well fed.
(4)Look frequently at the remotest hearers and see to it that they always hear you.
(5) Let there be a variety of pitch, force, and speed. Note; Monotony destroys eloquence.
No preacher should be found in the four categories of voices listed below. Each of them is a disaster in the pulpit and confusion in the pew, a mockery to the gospel and destructive to any sermon being delivered.
1. Mumbler – speaking with lips nearly closed. It is extremely confusing and gives the audience an added tank of trying in vain to understand what the preacher is saying.
2. Yeller – Making much noise, very much like the type you hear in the marketplace and in beer parlours. It wears out the audience and destroys all chance of using your voice to lay emphasis on anything.
3. Sing – Song – Voice. Changeless rhythm. Using one pattern of speech from beginning to the end of a sermon.
4. Monotone; The use of only one pitch in preaching. No room for emphasis, honour, serious expression or an expression of a sympathetic act or story.
REASON FOR GIVING INVITATION AFTER AN EVANGELISTIC SERMONS
The invitation is very common among preachers but what makes the. the difference is the purpose – your motive
Commitment Invitation is the climax of the sermon
3. To get Decision
4. It is Historical – Acts 2:40. Etc.
5. It is natural – to expose your audience to a variety
6. It is essential – because the dying sinner has no option.
PULPIT CONDUCT OR MANNERISM
Pulpit “decorum” – a Latin word for conduct taken from the root word “deconus” meaning – the rightness of conduct, acting, or behaving. It has been observed that most preachers are guilty of this shame, especially among evangelicals and Pentecostals. Who has general neglect to sacred worship and preaching? We the non-ritualistic or ceremonious, have failed to appreciate properly the Scriptural values of orderly worship, of dignity and solemnity of movement, and of the congregational participation in responses and otherwise.
POINTS TO CONSIDER
(1) Mode of dress
(2) Movement in the stage or pulpit
(3) How to talk or speak
(4) How you look at people
Things to avoid:
(5) Don’t back your audience
(6) Don’t shout at people
(7) Don’t throw something on people
(8) Don’t laugh carelessly
(9) Be to them a guide and a shepherd
(10) Don’t look fierce, or too bold or too humble
(11) Don’t look carelessly at everything
(12) Don’t pray carelessly when you get to the stage.
THE DELIVERY OF THE SERMON (METHOD OF DELIVERY)
Many preachers preach but few know the method, the How to’s of sermon delivery, and styles. There are basically three methods.
This is a method whereby the preacher writes out all his/her message in a note, either handwritten or typed. This method will expose you to many authors or authorities that will make your message interesting. This method is mostly practised in England, especially during the time of Henry the VIII
2 Recitation Method.
A method- the preacher now goatees in memory and read all verses and conclude without opening a book.
3 Extemporaneous Method, (free speaking method)
This is a type most tongue-speaking preachers use, a method one will not be fully prepared for, but few that use this method will actually read notes at home.
a. It places the preacher more at ease both before and after delivery.
b. It is a great relief to the preacher to escape the anxiety you are Expected to have or feel during delivery.
c. The preacher who is to read his sermons on Sunday morning has the advantage to sleep well on Saturday night.
d. It gives confidence while delivering.
e. It saves the preacher from having many words to flow out when preaching.
1. It deprives the preacher of all the thinking on who best to reach the audience.
2. Reading method is of necessary less effective.
3. It is more injurious to the voice- it brings some-throw- preachers who preach out have a more clear voice than those in the reading method.
4. It makes the user fear other methods, which thus is the best.
(1) A type of speaking that one has to recite his own composition.
(2) It cultivates or sharpens your memory.
(1) You .have no time to correct your errors observed at the movement of delivery.
(2) There is always a confusion of may be called – (logical of may be called – logical memory)
(3) It takes more time to arrange.
(4) It brings distress to the body.
(5) Those in this method don’t, preach always. They preach less occasionally.
(1) It makes you think more rapidly and with less dependence on materials.
(2) It saves you time for general improvement and other pastoral work.
(3) You have easy communication in this method
(4) . You can control your voice in this method, raise it or lower it.
(5) You can watch the effects of your message, or responses at the moment.
(6) The preacher is always natural in this method – because you are in control.
(7) It is accepted by the masses as the popular method.
(1) The neglect of preparation before delivery
(2) The sermon will be difficult to repeat.
(3) In this method you can easily make more mistakes than other methods.
(4) The success is dependent on the preachers feeling at the delivery.
This is that sermon that seeks to promote the conviction of sin and lead man to an immediate decision for Christ.
The sermon is used in church services, ceremonies and special occasions, crusades, and other outings or outreaches.
This sermon should be simple and indirect to the point, and it calls for variety. It should be direct to conscience and positively. Interactive, alive, and salvation
It should appeal to every class of people, the rich, poor, etc.
It should be notable for human interest.
It should be personal, direct, and urgent
It should be filled with compassion.
It should not have tomorrow – but now.
It should come out with power and authority and Scriptures that are relevant
that are relevant.
(1) The power of the Gospel makes the strongest appeal
(2) Appeal to a sense of shame over moral failure
(3) Appeal to fear
(4) Appeal to basic drives.
(5) Use the principles of persuasion or urge.
(6) Use short stones in the area of examples or illustrations
TYPES OF EVANGELISTIC SERMON
(1) The illustrative, narrative – kind.
(2) The teaching form
(3) The personal type
(4) The Scriptural type
(5) Doctrinal type.
MECHANICS OF PREACHING
A. walk the various details related to preparing, presenting, and preserving sermons
I. METHODOLOGY OF PREPARING SERMONS
A. Make notes
B. Interpret the passage
C. Formulate the General Theme.
D. List the Objectives of the Sermon
E. Create an Outline (two crucial points)
1. The outline must be based upon the theme.
a. Every point and every sub-point of the outline must be based upon the theme.
b. If you are preaching a sermon on praising the Lord, it would be inappropriate to throw
in a point-out baptism.
2. The outline must have parallel thoughts.
a. One of the common mistakes that preachers make is to prepare sermons whose outlines
are not parallel.
b. Getting this right can turn an ordinary sermon into a good one and a good sermon into a
great sermon. It takes extra work and thought but it is worth it in the end. And the longer
you work on it the easier it becomes.
F. Write out your sermon completely.
Reasons for Writing out Sermons Completely.
Writing helps concentration.
1. Writing forces you to see the truth you would not see otherwise. /3. Writing helps organize your thoughts.
4. Writing helps to cement facts into your mind.
Writing preserves a permanent record of what God is teaching you.
6. Writing gives you a useful tool to help other people.
1 Anting can serve as a base for future lectures, sermons, articles, books, and other
8. Writing can serve as a means of getting relief and release from problems and pressures.
Use the extended outline format. An extended outline format uses complete sentences but organizes thoughts in an outline format rather than a paragraph formal. Some reasons for this approach:
a. Outlining helps your organization. It makes the sermon flow smoothly.
b. Outlining makes a sermon more comprehensible to the listener.
c. Outlining keeps one concentrating on the main theme.
d. An extended outline is easy to use in the pulpit.
e. A good outline helps the hearer to remember the sermon longer because the outline has
continued to reinforce the theme.
3. You should write out completely your introduction.
a. The introduction is the first thing that the audience is going to hear. If you do not
capture the attention of the audience in the first few moments, you may not have an
opportunity to get their attention later.
b. The introduction part of the sermon will include the following general points;
2) Opening Remarks (sometimes reversed with text)
3) Theme: I write out here the theme that I plan to use in the sermon. Sometimes I will tell the audience the theme: at other times I will not.
4) Background Information: Here live any background details that the audience will need to know to understand and appreciate the sermon.
a) This may include background details of the scripture.
b) It may include how you arrived at the particular text.
c) It may be a statement about the conference or meeting in which you are speaking, especially if you have been assigned a topic or text.
Illustrations distinguish a good sermon from a poor one. A homiletics teacher told his class that illustrations are like windows in a room. They let light in and make the room more comfortable. Stories create interest. Stories increase understanding. Stories aid application. Stories prolong memory. Stories are the most natural teaching technique. People are accustomed to hearing stories and will respond positively to them. Probably the best preachers and teachers are those who can tell the best stories.
Jesus was the master user of stories and illustrations. He told stories from history, from everyday life, and from traditional stories that were well known in His day. He also used many word pictures taken from all walks of life to help His listeners understand and apply the points He wanted to make. Why did Jesus tell so many stories? Because he is the designer of man and understands our nature better than anyone else. He understands that we learn best through stories.
Work very hard at collecting good illustrations and stories and work them into your sermons Also write the stories and illustrations out as completely as you are going to tell them in the pulpit.
Suggestions for preparing and telling stories:
1. Practice telling your stories. Especially if you are not a comfortable storyteller.
2. .Make the story as realistic as possible. Do not use the”‘Person A” and “Person B” kind of
language. Give real names and describe the story as realistically s possible.
3. Try to preserve some element of surprise in the story. Never say am going to tell, you a
funny story”‘ or “a fictional story.” It is best not to identify in advance anything about how
Mechanics of Preaching the story might impact the hearer. If you are going to tell a fictional type story, simply begin it by saying, “I heard a story one time.”‘
4. Do not hesitate to use first-person stories. These are stones of things that happened to you or about which you have personal knowledge. Therefore, these stories are told with first-person pronouns like 1, me, we, us, and our.
5. Beware of getting so bogged down in the details, that your listeners miss the point of the story. Details should make the story interesting but should not confuse the point.
6. Be careful about being overly conscientious in telling stories.
7. Sometimes it may be necessary to alter slightly some details of a story to make it understandable to your audience. This is where the context may be different.
8. Use the present tense in telling stories.
9. Be cautious about le/ling stories borrowed from others as if they happened to you.
10. Never preach a sermon without telling a story
If you want to work on only one particular part of your preaching during the next year, work on developing and presenting good illustrations. Your people will notice the difference immediately. I believe that if you learn to research stories and save stories and use them effectively in your sermons, you will be changed from an average preacher to a good preacher or from a good preacher to a great preacher.
III. KEEPING RECORD OF SERMONS
A. Professional Practice
B. Suggestions for Record Keeping
1. Keep records of your preaching.
A. Communication is both an art and a science. It is both works by human beings.
B. The Bible says, “To whom much is given, much shall be required.” God has given to preachers many precious truths. The least we can do is apply ourselves in the best possible way to share these good things God gives to us.
Take very seriously your responsibility to prepare your sermons. Preaching can yield big dividends. But, preaching also follows the rule of the harvest. If you invest, prepare and plant the seed well, the harvest will be great. Prepare the soil of your heart well. Plant the truths of God’s word into your sermons. You will reap the reward of successful preaching.
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